NATO’s response to hybrid threats 18 Bibliography 20 II. If the new threat is so complex, political, and subtle, shouldn’t the response be the same? NATO and EU discuss defence against hybrid warfare. A recent experiment raised important issues concerning how NATO does business. It will deter hybrid attacks on the Alliance and, if necessary, will defend Allies concerned. Other Centres of Excellence contribute to NATO’s efforts to counter hybrid threats, including the Strategic Communications Centre of Excellence in Riga, Latvia; the Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence in Tallinn, Estonia; and the Energy Security Centre of Excellence in Vilnius, Lithuania. Let us be quite clear about that. The West’s preoccupation with the Gerasimov doctrine and Russia’s hybrid warfare also obscures the role of Russia’s military power in its foreign and national security policies. The same issue … 21), 2016 Warsaw Summit Declaration (para. In the last decade, some of the most important military forces and coalitions in the world, including the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), have attempted to address and counter so-called hybrid threats. The Alliance supports Allies’ efforts to identify national vulnerabilities and strengthen their own resilience, if requested. Russia is disturbing the peace, and NATO countries must combat its hybrid strategy, the alliance’s supreme allied commander for Europe said., ... NATO Moves to Combat Russian Hybrid Warfare … The concept features prominently in NATO and EU policy instruments and has informed the United States’ National Security Strategy adopted in December 2017. Mattis, James N., and Frank G. Hoffman. 4 3 Part of the conceptual confusion stems from the fact that there is no standard, commonly-accepted definition of hybrid warfare. Part 1 – ‘Hybrid warfare’ and ‘hybrid threats’ are By defencematters; 06 February 2016; 10:58; Over the past two years, NATO has been focused on hybrid warfare. NATO Secretary General's Annual Report 2019 NATO (19 March 2020) See page 29. The Pentagon looks to shore up potential holes in the U.S. missile defense system, a WWE star reveals how service in the Marine Corps helped make her a success, and Military Times editors look ahead to the biggest stories they'll be tracking in 2021 as the new year gets underway - it's Defense News Weekly for January 4, 2021. What is it?” he added. NATO also serves as a hub for expertise, providing support to Allies in areas such as civil preparedness and chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) incident response; critical infrastructure protection; strategic communications; protection of civilians; cyber defence; energy security; and counter-terrorism. Linear conflicts are defined by a sequential progression of a planned strategy by opposing sides, whereas nonlinear conflict is the simultaneous deployment of multiple, complementary military and non-military warfare tactics. Andrew Mumford. If the new threat is so complex, political, and subtle, shouldn’t the response be the same? British military doctrine, in contrast, follows Huber’s definition, and captures hybrid warfare as an aspect of irregu - lar warfare. NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the inauguration of the European Centre of Excellence (CoE) for Countering Hybrid Threats (Finland, 2 October 2017). Wallace stayed away from responding to French President Emmanuel Macrons controversial view that the alliance was “brain dead," but he, like others in NATO, accept the need for continuing change. There is no fixed definition of hybrid warfare, but it includes elements of cyber and information warfare, economic and political manipulation, and kinetic military action. "It starts with investment in both our conventional forces which are so important to effect deterrence and in those new capabilities needed to address the challenges that lay ahead,"he said. Trump wants NATO to be more involved in the Middle East. Hybrid warfare occupies the uncomfortable middle ground between conventional and unconventional warfare, mixing elements of both in the process. The NATO alliance faces not only a conventional threat from Russia, but also one that is more insidious in nature—hybrid warfare. National Security Advisers meet at NATO Headquarters, NATO Deputy Secretary General to speak on Countering Hybrid Threats, Secretary General participates in Hybrid Centre of Excellence inauguration with Finnish leaders and EU High Representative, Remarks by NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg at the Inauguration of the Helsinki Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats, with EU High Representative Federica Mogherini. Definition of hybrid warfare in the Definitions.net dictionary. Hybrid Warfare : Fighting Complex Opponents from the Ancient World to the Present by Murray, Williamson & Mansoor, Peter R. 3.1. Countering hybrid threats is a priority for EU-NATO cooperation and the new European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats in Helsinki plays a unique role. "(5) Both of these definitions align with Frank Hoffman's vision of hybrid warfare, which is also the most predominantly accepted military WWE star tells how Marine Corps service helped her succeed, Money Minute: Student loan repayment and consolidation, Money Minute: Sending cash by mobile apps — convenient, but be careful, https://www.defensenews.com © 2021 Sightline Media Group, NATO’s London meetings are off to a rocky start, The top stories to follow in 2021 - Defense News Weekly, 1.4.21. hybrid warfare use the term to describe the area where regular warfare and irregular warfare intersect and blend to create a new form of warfare. The primary responsibility to respond to hybrid threats or attacks rests with the targeted nation. ‘Hybrid warfare’, sometimes known as ‘hybrid threats’, became a trendy buzzword in recent years, used to describe a panoply of seemingly different threats. NATO is prepared to assist any Ally against hybrid threats as part of collective defence. Sweden’s defense minister on relations with America, Russian threats and the European Union. The Warsaw Summit took place amidst the persistent migrant crisis in Europe, the ongoing armed conflicts in Syria and Iraq, the partly-frozen armed conflict in Ukraine, and in the aftermath of the so-called ‘Brexit’ referen… It continues to increase the readiness and preparedness of its forces, and has strengthened its decision-making process and its command structure as part of its deterrence and defence posture. British military doctrine, in contrast, follows Huber’s definition, and captures hybrid warfare as an aspect of irregu - lar warfare. A strategy and actionable implementation plans on NATO’s role in countering hybrid warfare … a rather new threat definition and its (temporary) inclusion in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization’s (NATO) new comprehensive defence approach with a reflection on the last Swedish experiment. Axel Hagelstam of the Finnish Mission to NATO and Kirsti Narinen of the Centre explain. The Alliance has developed a strategy on its role in countering hybrid warfare to help address these threats. Secondly, it discusses the use of ‘cyber’ in the context of ‘hybrid threats’ before it, thirdly, addresses some implications for Sign up for the Early Bird Brief, the defense industry's most comprehensive news and information, straight to your inbox. The term hybrid threat refers to an action conducted by state or non-state actors, whose goal is to undermine or harm a target by combining overt and covert military and non-military means. Confusion and disorder ensue when weaponize… The Warsaw Summit took place almost two years after the Wales Summit, at which NATO recognised that international law applies to cyberspace and that cyber defence is part of NATO’s core task of collective defence. This thesis uses the Williamson Murray and McGregor Knox definitions of Military Revolution (MR) and Revolution in Military Affairs (RMA) in order to determine if hybrid warfare falls under MR or RMA. The period of the Vietnam War from 1962 to 1968 would fit the definition of hybrid war until the Tet Offensive in 1968 when the Viet Cong ceased to exist as a serious military threat. . While there is no single perception of what ‘hybrid warfare’ is, the focus is on concrete responses to threats posed by Russia and, to a lesser extent, ISIL. BACHMANN, Hybrid Threats, cyber warfare and NATO’s comprehensive approach for countering 21st century threats: mapping the new frontier of global risk and security management. They are international research centres that are nationally or multi-nationally funded and staffed. hybrid warfare, supplemented by the NATO hybrid warfare playbook, laying out who does what in dealing with complex security threat scenarios that combine militias, cyber-attacks, targeting of critical infrastructure, as well as types of assistance the alliance would provide should a member state come under outside pressure. As part of their increasingly closer cooperation, NATO and the EU have stepped up their cooperation on dealing with hybrid threats, with a special focus on countering cyber attacks. This strategy is called a hybrid war, he said, and NATO is coming to grips with the concept. In the words of one NATO/ACT official, the task is to “paint the face on the faceless enemy”3 and to develop the hybrid threat concept, as well as examine viable and effective strategies to meet hybrid threats. “Future Warfare: The Rise of Hybrid Wars.” Search for documents on Hybrid Warfare on the NATO website. Hybrid warfare has been in the limelight for more than a decade within the Western strategic discourse. The definition encompasses the key elements of hybrid warfare: conventional and non-conventional, blurring of domains and involving elements previously allocated to the unlawful domain. Hybrid warfare. Hybrid threats combine military and non-military as well as covert and overt means, including disinformation, cyber attacks, economic pressure, deployment of irregular armed groups and use of regular forces. Ukraine sees two paths for joining NATO. The hybrid warfare is an unstructured form of war, used by States, To be prepared, NATO continuously gathers, shares and assesses information in order to detect and attribute any ongoing hybrid activity. Hybrid Warfare is Under the Threshold of Article 5 . Since 2015, NATO has had a strategy on its role in countering hybrid warfare. The Centre is an initiative of the Government of Finland, supported by 23 other nations, as well as NATO and the EU. This includes exercising of decision–making processes and joint military and non-military responses in cooperation with other actors. Some $400 billion will be spent on defense investment by European nations and Canada by 2024‎, but more needs to be done, he said. Hybrid CoE Hybrid CoE is an independent, network-based international organisation countering hybrid threats. Hybrid warfare — also known as grey zone conflict or low-intensity conflict — is a reality, and the U.S. military must be ready to confront and deter it, a senior intelligence officer said. It is an amorphous definition for an amorphous strategy. It also actively counters propaganda – not with more propaganda, but with facts – online, on air and in print. Hybrid methods of warfare, such as propaganda, deception, sabotage and other non-military tactics have long been used to destabilise adversaries. The terms hybrid warfare, new generation warfare and grey zone are often used interchangeably to describe the Russian operational approach towards the post-Soviet states or former Soviet republics. NATO will ensure that the Alliance and Allies are sufficiently prepared to counter hybrid attacks in whatever form they may materialise. The concept features prominently in NATO and EU policy instruments and has informed the United States’ National Security Strategy adopted in December 2017. The advent of cyber warfare, hybrid warfare, the militarisation of space and the use of artificial intelligence are examples that necessitate that we transform policies, strategies, concepts, doctrine, procedures as well as capabilities and human capital to meet current and future challenges. D. EFINITION. the NATO Capstone Concept characterizes hybrid threats as "those posed by adversar-ies, with the ability to simultaneously employ conventional and non-conventional means adaptively in pursuit of their objectives. Emerging technologies like hypersonic missiles and quantum‎ computing are changing the threat landscape, the defense secretary said, urging that NATO must to understand the challenges and adapt accordingly. As we shall soon discover, Hybrid Warfare (HW) has much older origins than would first be assumed. By combining kinetic operations with subversive efforts, the aggressor intends to avoid attribution or retribution. Venues for future: proposed measures for improving the ability of states to face hybrid warfare 17 6. ... What distinguishes this definition of hybrid warfare from those discussed earlier is the emphasis on non-military methods of conflict and, in particular, Hybrid war breaks down the traditional binary delineation between war and peace. Hybrid wars are, broadly defined, conflicts involving one or more nonstate actors that nevertheless possess the attributes of a state’s military. Much is made these days of the new challenge to the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) from “hybrid warfare” — the kind of blended military-political-intelligence-economic operations Russia has launched in Ukraine. Indeed, while this type of conflict has only been publically labelled in the last decade, the roots can be found… Hybrid war strategies are always underway, although at certain moments they may become more acute and intense or cross over into conventional combat operations. This sends a strong signal that the Alliance is improving both its political and military responsiveness and its ability to deploy appropriate forces to the right place at the right time. D. EFINITION. Over the last few years, “hybrid warfare” has become firmly established in the Western security lexicon. What is new about attacks seen in recent years is their speed, scale and intensity, facilitated by rapid technological change and global interconnectivity. Potential of hybrid warfare 15 5. It uses a blend of military, economic, diplomatic, criminal, and informational means to achieve desired political goals. 23 If properly used, these terms should provide consistency and help prevent misunderstanding. The reality of hybrid war is ever-changing intensity of conflict. This article analyzes the emergence of 'hybrid warfare', which blurs the line between military and civilian forms of organization, both in the conduct and the target of warfare. During the last five years, this slippery concept … Today, the Alliance is faced with a range of challenges. To deter hybrid threats, NATO is resolved to act promptly, whenever and wherever necessary. In July 2018, NATO leaders agreed to set up counter-hybrid support teams, which provide tailored targeted assistance to Allies upon their request, in preparing against and responding to hybrid activities. ple, defines hybrid warfare as conflict involving a combination of conventional military forces and irregulars (guerrillas, insurgents, and terrorists), which could include both state and non-state actors, aimed at achieving a common political purpose. A nonlinear war is fought when a state employs conventional and irregular military forces in conjunction with psychological, economic, political, and cyber assaults. Hard power underpins hybrid warfare. (I analyzed this idea in more depth here.). There is no official definition of hybrid warfare by NATO; however, it has defined hybrid warfare in its public pronouncements as warfare . Deputy Secretary General Rose Gottemoeller welcomed European Commissioner for the Security Union Sir Julian King to NATO on Thursday (14 March 2019), for talks on how NATO and the EU can work more closely together to counter hybrid warfare. London Declaration. Hybrid warfare occupies the uncomfortable middle ground between conventional and unconventional warfare, mixing elements of both in the process. NATO’s Joint Intelligence and Security Division has a hybrid analysis branch that helps improve situational awareness. “We must be on the hunt for the next great geopolitical disrupters like climate change, or the next technological advancement that changes the game completely,” he said. The hybrid analysis branch provides decision-makers with improved awareness on possible hybrid threats. . Besides, the definitions of some terms that are widely associated with hybrid warfare are provided. Phone: +371 26533953. e-mail: info [at] stratcomcoe [dot] org Hybrid warfare has become a term for modern warfare or for the next war. (i.e. Over the last few years, “hybrid warfare” has become firmly established in the Western security lexicon. On 1 December 2015, NATO Secretary General Jens Stoltenberg and then European Union High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy, Federica Mogherini, announced the launching of a new hybrid warfare program and a new NATO hybrid warfare strategy. Riga, LV1048, Latvia. When Dr Andrew Mumford published Proxy Warfare in 2013, one reviewer called it “an important contribution to our understanding of war” (Professor James Wirtz, the Dean of the US Naval Postgraduate School). Advising NATO on Hybrid Warfare. Key Characteristics of Russian Hybrid Warfare Russian hybrid warfare has at least three main characteristics. Address: 11b Kalnciema str. NATO continues to strengthen its cooperation and coordination with such partners as Finland, Sweden, Ukraine and the European Union (EU) to counter hybrid threats and enhance resilience. McCuen sees hybrid warfare as using a variety of tools to persuade the domestic population of a targeted state. The first definition of hybrid warfare is given by Hoffman. “Maintain technological edge is the only way we can avoid obsolescence,” he warned. It risks creating the impression that hybrid tactics can exist separately from Russia’s military capabilities. “One of the things about hybrid war is defining it. News, Official Texts, Opinions) Defending against Hybrid Threats. NATO to define plan to counter Russia’s hybrid warfare tactics. . Hybrid warfare is a term that sought to capture the blurring and blending of previously separate categories of conflict. In the past several years there has been a noticeable increase in the range and intensity of Russian hybrid warfare attacks. In addition, Centres of Excellence work alongside and contribute knowledge and expertise to the Alliance. to NATO Allied Command Transformation (ACT). Thus, the purpose of this article is to contribute to the understanding the hybrid warfare by developing a perceptional map, which will, if possible, pave the way to new theories by creating taxonomy as a result of Multidimensional Scaling (MDS) analysis. Hybrid warfare can be used to describe the flexible and complex dynamics of the battlespace requiring a highly adaptable and resilient respo Hybrid methods of warfare, such as propaganda, deception, sabotage and other non-military tactics have long been used to destabilise adversaries. The first definition of hybrid warfare is given by Hoffman. Inauguration of Hybrid CoE with NATO Secretary General and EUHR Mogherini - Q&A, NATO Secretary General press point at inauguration of Hybrid CoE, Inauguration of the European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats, NATO Deputy Secretary General on countering hybrid threats, 15 FEB 2018, 1/2, Statement on the implementation of the Joint Declaration signed by the President of the European Council, the President of the European Commission, and the Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, 2018 Brussels Summit Declaration (para. By: Andrew Chuter December 3, 2019 . What does hybrid warfare mean? Russia’s Hybrid War in Ukraine: Breaking the Enemy’s Ability to Resist The Finnish Institute of International Affairs, FIIA report (16 June 2015) NATO and New Ways of Warfare: Defeating Hybrid … The speed, scale and intensity of hybrid threats have increased in recent years. An analyst looks at code in the malware lab of a cyber security defense lab. ‘hybrid warfare’ and ‘hybrid threats’ to provide further clarity. the NATO Capstone Concept characterizes hybrid threats as "those posed by adversar-ies, with the ability to simultaneously employ conventional and non-conventional means adaptively in pursuit of their objectives. It uses a blend of military, economic, diplomatic, criminal, and informational means to achieve desired political goals. Hybrid warfare is a term that sought to capture the blurring and blending of previously separate categories of conflict. Proxy warfare refers to when states influence conflicts without placing their own forces on the ground. Hybrid threats are dealt with more prominently in the Warsaw Summit Communiqué than in the Wales Summit Declaration, and they are now directly linked to cyber threats (paras 71, 72 and 135). The Joint Intelligence and Security Division at NATO Headquarters improves the Alliance’s understanding and analysis of hybrid threats. The definition encompasses the key elements of hybrid warfare: conventional and non-conventional, blurring of domains and involving elements previously allocated to the unlawful domain. One of Amicus Curiae The European Centre of Excellence for Countering Hybrid Threats located in Helsinki, Finland serves as a hub of expertise, assisting participating countries in improving their civil-military capabilities, resilience and preparedness to counter hybrid threats. "When‎ leaders meet tomorrow they will agree a plan for NATO's response to emerging and disruptive technology, recognising two new operational domains in space and cyber, and develop plans to confront and deter hybrid tactics," Wallace told an international audience of defense analysts and policymakers. In modern hybrid warfare, the success results for the initiating actor fall to 40% with two ongoing stalemates, but the initiator has less that a coin toss of a chance for a decisive early victory. where a wide range of overt and covert military, NATO and the European Union (EU) are working on strategies to strengthen defensive capabilities and prevent hybrid attacks. What is new about attacks seen in recent years is their speed, scale and intensity, facilitated by rapid technological change and global interconnectivity. While there is still no unanimously agreed-upon definition of ‘Hybrid Warfare’, the MC considered using the terminology shown in Figure 1. (Eds.) Hybrid methods are used to blur the lines between war and peace, and attempt to sow doubt in the minds of target populations. Viewed from this perspective, hybrid warfare …